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SIS Global Election Tracker

The countdown to US Presidential Elections galvanizes interests and punditry around the world. Already, we see buzz around the 2024 US presidential race well underway: August 2023 will see the first in a series of Republican primary debates, and the analysis, punditry, and outright spinning will be nonstop through—and beyond—November 5, 2024.

The reality is that “how goes the world” is not driven solely by US elections! Governments globally, in a variety of systems of government, have important national elections planned between now and 2025. These elections are critical to understanding the global dynamics of democratic progress vs. backsliding, predicting implications for global security and regional economic growth, and tracking impacts on human rights and representation. And beyond the "local is global" impacts, "local" is also personal to our SIS community: SIS has students, alumni, staff, and faculty from around the world. We recognize and seek to understand the meaning of national elections to each country’s residents and communities.

At SIS, our scholars also possess a deep well of expertise on the politics and the contexts of countries around the world. Enter our Global Elections Initiative. We're embarking on a project to promote discussions; stage events; create web content; and generally, keep our focus on key national elections around the world and dive deeper into the trends, opportunities, and challenges they reflect. We’ve established the SIS Global Elections Tracker as a new resource for keeping apprised of politics at the national level—to promote active engagement and analysis.

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About this tracker

The SIS Global Election Tracker is sourced from a variety of reputable news and information outlets. Where an election’s date, function, or outcome is in doubt, we defer to a combination of the National Democratic Institute’s global election tracker, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems’ Election Guide, and announcements from the US Department of State to determine the information we post.

Worldwide Elections
Country Type of Election Date Status Region SIS Expert
Algeria* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Argentina open, simultaneous, and obligatory primaries (PASO) Aug 2023 completed South America Agustina Giraudy
Argentina general Oct 2023 completed South America Agustina Giraudy
Argentina runoff Nov 2023 completed South America Agustina Giraudy
Bangladesh general Jan 2024 completed Asia Tazreena Sajjad, C. Austin Davis
Belarus parliamentary Feb 2024 completed Europe Keith Darden
Belgium federal Jun 2024 confirmed Europe Garret Martin, Michelle Egan
Botswana* general Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Burkina Faso* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Cambodia general Jul 2023 confirmed Asia
Chad* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa Ernest Ogbozor
Comoros* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Croatia* parliamentary Dec 2024 tentative Europe Mirjana Morosini, Doga Eralp
Democratic Republic of the Congo general Dec 2023 completed Africa
Dominican Republic general May 2024 confirmed South America
Ecuador presidential runoff Oct 2023 completed South America Agustina Giraudy, Lou Goodman, Robin Broad
Egypt* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa
El Salvador general Feb 2024 completed South America Robin Broad
European Union european parliament Jun 2024 confirmed Europe Garret Martin
Finland presidential Jan 2024 confirmed Europe Garret Martin
Finland presidential runoff Feb 2024 confirmed Europe Garret Martin
Georgia* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Europe Keith Darden
Georgia* parliamentary Dec 2024 tentative Europe Keith Darden
Ghana general Dec 2024 confirmed Africa
Guatemala presidential runoff Aug 2023 completed South America Anthony Fontes, Walter Flores
India* general Dec 2024 tentative Asia Amitav Acharya
Indonesia general Feb 2024 completed Asia
Liberia general Oct 2023 completed Africa
Lithuania presidential May 2024 confirmed Europe
Lithuania parliamentary Oct 2024 confirmed Europe Keith Darden
Madagascar presidential Nov 2023 completed Africa
Maldives presidential Sep 2023 completed Asia
Maldives presidential runoff Sep 2023 completed Asia
Mali presidential Feb 2024 tentative Africa
Mauritania* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Mauritius* general Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Mexico general Jun 2024 confirmed North America Tony Wayne, Lou Goodman, Agustina Giraudy
Moldova* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Europe Keith Darden
Mozambique* general Dec 2024 tentative Africa
Myanmar* general Dec 2023 tentative Asia Tazreena Sajjad, C. Austin Davis
Namibia* general Dec 2024 tentative Africa
New Zealand general Oct 2023 completed Oceania
North Macedonia* parliamentary Dec 2024 tentative Europe Mirjana Morosini, Doga Eralp
Pakistan general Feb 2024 completed Asia Akbar Ahmed
Palau general Nov 2024 confirmed Oceania
Panama general May 2024 confirmed South America
Peru* general Dec 2024 tentative South America Agustina Giraudy, Lou Goodman
Poland* parliamentary Oct 2023 confirmed Europe Garret Martin
Romania* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Europe Mirjana Morosini, Keith Darden
Russia presidential Mar 2024 confirmed Europe Keith Darden, James Goldgeier
Rwanda parliamentary Jul 2024 confirmed Africa Claudine Kuradusenge-McLeod
Rwanda presidential Jul 2024 confirmed Africa Claudine Kuradusenge-McLeod
Senegal presidential Jul 2024 tentative Africa
Singapore presidential Sep 2023 completed Asia Lou Goodman
Slovakia parliamentary Sep 2023 completed Europe Keith Darden
South Africa* general Dec 2024 tentative Africa
South Korea legislative Apr 2024 confirmed Asia Ji-young Lee
Spain general Jul 2023 confirmed Europe Garret Martin, Michelle Egan
Sri Lanka* presidential Dec 2024 tentative Asia
Switzerland federal Oct 2023 completed Europe Garret Martin
Taiwan presidential Jan 2024 completed Asia Piper Campbell
Ukraine parliamentary Oct 2023 deferred Europe Keith Darden, James Goldgeier
Ukraine* presidential Dec 2024 deferred Europe Keith Darden, James Goldgeier
United States presidential Nov 2024 confirmed North America Jordan Tama
Uruguay general Oct 2024 confirmed South America
Uzbekistan presidential Jul 2023 results in Asia Keith Darden
Uzbekistan* parliamentary Dec 2024 tentative Asia Keith Darden
Venezuela* presidential Dec 2024 tentative South America
Zimbabwe general Aug 2023 disputed Africa Shannon Hader

Note: An asterisk next to the country name indicates that the date listed is accurate only to the year; the month has been added for sorting purposes only. Dates will be updated as available. 

Africa

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) held a general election on December 20, 2023, to elect a president and members of the National Assembly. According to the BBC, the election faced numerous logistical issues and had to be extended to a second day in some areas. The DRC's National Independent Electoral Commission announced on December 31, 2023, that incumbent president Felix Tshisekedi won the election with 73% of the vote. 

General Election

  • December 20, 2023

Following a runoff election on November 16, incumbent president George Weah conceded to opposition leader Joseph Boakai. This election represents the first since the 2018 departure of the United Nations Mission in Liberia, according to Ducor Institute for Social & Economic Research.

General Election

  • October 10, 2023

Runoff Election

  • November 16, 2023

Madagascar held its presidential election on November 16, 2023. Voters re-elected incumbent president Andry Rajoelina amid controversy and contested polls

Presidential Election

  • November 16, 2023

Mali is expected to hold a presidential election in February 2024. Malian voters approved changes to the nation’s constitution in June 2023. The amendments to the constitution are expected to help facilitate a transition to civilian leadership, according to DW News. The nation has been ruled by a military junta since a coup d’état in 2020.

Presidential Election

  • Expected February 2024

Rwanda is slated to hold a presidential election in 2024. Incumbent president Paul Kagame, who has been president since 2000, has announced he will seek a fourth term. In a referendum held in 2015, voters approved amendments to the nation’s constitution that provides Kagame the potential to stay in office until 2034, according to Britannica.

Presidential Election

  • Expected August 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Senegal has rescheduled its presidential election following prolonged disputes over who could run. Incumbent president Macky Sall does not intend to run again but announced that the election will be held before the rainy season begins in July of 2024.

Presidential Election

  • Expected July 2024

Zimbabwe held its general election on August 23 to elect a new parliament and president. The Zimbabwe Election Commission has declared the results, with incumbent President Emmerson Mnangagwa as the winner; however, many international observers are concerned about the validity of those results.

The US State Department has released this statement, saying, "Although the Zimbabwe Election Commission (ZEC) has announced results of the country’s recent presidential election, multiple observation missions have expressed deep concerns and stated that the country’s electoral process did not meet regional and international standards for credibility."

General Election

  • August 23, 2023

Asia

Bangladesh held a general election on January 7, 2024. Incumbent Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina won an unprecedented fourth term, with her Awami Party securing over 75% of the votes. 

The US and EU have raised concern about fair elections in Bangladesh following allegations of vote-rigging in 2014 and 2018, according to DW News. US Secretary of State Antony Blinken announced in May 2023 that the US was adopting a new policy to restrict visas for Bangladeshis who undermine the democratic election, as reported by Reuters

General Election

  • January 7, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Cambodia held its general election on July 23, 2023. The country’s ruling party, the Cambodian People’s Party, declared victory soon after the election. The CPP said it won 120 out of 125 seats in Parliament, which would ultimately cement Prime Minister Hun Sen’s rule ahead of an expected transition of power to his son, according to Reuters.

In a statement, the US Department of State said it is “troubled that the July 23 Cambodian national elections were neither free nor fair.” The State Department noted that ahead of the July election, Cambodian authorities threatened and harassed political opposition groups and ultimately “denied the Cambodian people a voice and a choice in determining the future of their country.”

General Election

  • July 23, 2023

India is scheduled to hold a general election in 2024. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his ruling Bharitiya Janata Party (BJP) are running to be re-elected to a third term.

India’s parliament is composed of a lower house, the Lok Sabha, and an upper house, the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha has 543 members, and the Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members. Heading into the 2024 election, Modi’s BJP holds 301 seats in the lower house, according to Reuters.   

General Election

  • Expected 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous nation, held its general election on February 14. Defense Minister and ex-General Prabowo Subianto claimed an early victory with over 58% of the vote amid concerns over his past human rights record. 

General Election

  • February 14, 2024

The Maldives held the first round of its presidential election on September 9, 2023. No candidate reached the required 50% of votes, so a runoff election was scheduled for September 30, 2023. Mohamed Muizzu won the runoff election and will become the next president. 

Presidential Election

  • September 9, 2023

Presidential Runoff

  • September 30, 2023

Myanmar delayed its election that it had originally planned to hold in August 2023. On August 1, 2023, the military made a statement on state television announcing that the election would be delayed due to ongoing violence, according to Al Jazeera. The nation extended its state of emergency that has been in place since 2021 following a coup d’état.

General Election

  • Date Unknown

Pakistan’s general election was held on February 8, 2024. Independent candidates affiliated with ousted leader Imran Khan’s Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) party secured 93 out of 336 seats in Parliament — the most seats in the election.

General Election

  • February 8, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Singapore’s presidential election was held on September 1, 2023. Former deputy prime minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam won the presidency with 70.4% of the votes. Shanmugaratnam is a member of the People’s Action Party and has previously won several elections at the parliamentary level, according to Reuters. Shanmugaratnam was officially sworn into office on September 14, 2023. 

General Election

  • September 1, 2023

South Korea is scheduled to hold its legislative election on April 10, 2024. The election will determine the composition of the National Assembly, which has 300 seats. Members of the National Assembly serve four-year terms.

General Election

  • April 10, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Sri Lanka is expected to hold its presidential election by June or July 2024. In 2022, lawmakers in Sri Lanka’s parliament selected Ranil Wickremesinghe to replace and finish the term of President Gotabaya Rajapaska, who was pushed out of office by protestors who blamed him for the country’s economic collapse, according to the New York Times

Presidential Election

  • Expected 2024

Taiwan held its presidential election on January 13, 2024. Democratic Progressive Party leader Lai Ching-te declared victory, securing a third consecutive term for the party.

The election has implications for US-China relations for years to come, as President Joe Biden has repeatedly said the US would come to Taiwan’s aid if it was attacked. Since 1979, the US has held a “One China policy” and does not formally recognize Taiwan as an independent nation.

Presidential Election

  • January 13, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Uzbekistan President Shavkat Mirziyoyev was re-elected in July to another seven-year term in a snap election. According to Al Jazeera, Mirziyoyev called a snap election after the constitution was changed via referendum, ultimately resetting his term count and extending the presidential term from five years to seven years.

The nation is expected to hold parliamentary elections in 2024. Uzbekistan’s parliament, Oliy Majlis, has two chambers—the Senate and the Legislative Chamber. The Senate has 100 seats and the Legislative Chamber has 150 seats.

Presidential Election

  • July 9, 2023

Parliamentary Election

  • Expected 2024

Europe

Belarus held Parliamentary elections on February 25, 2024. Only candidates registered to the four official parties were on the ballot, and 51 of the 110 parliament seats went to members of the Belaya Rus party, according to the Associated Press.

The U.S. State Department released a statement condemning the elections as a sham, and urging the Lukashenko regime to "end its crackdown, release all political prisoners, and open dialogue with its political opponents."

Legislative Election

  • February 25, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Belgium will hold parliamentary elections on June 9, 2024, to elect all 150 seats of the Chamber of Representatives. Belgium has compulsory voting laws, which results in one of the highest voter turnout rates in the world. 

Parliamentary Election

  • June 9, 2024

The European Parliament will hold elections from June 6-9, 2024, for all 750 seats. The European Parliament is one of the legislative bodies of the European Union, and it is the only directly elected EU institution. Over 400 million people are eligible to vote in the parliamentary election as citizens of EU member nations, making it the largest transnational election in the world.

Parliamentary Election

  • June 6-9, 2024
  • This is the first parliamentary election since the United Kingdom’s exit from the EU in 2020

Context from SIS Experts

Finland held its presidential elections on January 28, 2024. No candidate reached the required 50% of votes, so it will go to a runoff election between the top two candidates on February 11, 2024. Ex-Prime Minister Alexander Stubb led the polls with 27.3% of the votes, and Finland’s current foreign minister, Pekka Haavisto, was second in the polls with 25.8% of the votes. 

Presidential Election

  • January 28, 2024

Presidential Runoff

  • February 11, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Georgia will hold parliamentary and presidential elections in 2024. The Parliament of Georgia is comprised of 150 members, and all seats are up for election. These elections come at a time when many Georgians are concerned about democratic backsliding within the country.

Parliamentary Election

  • Expected 2024

Presidential Election

  • Expected 2024

Polish voters turned out in record numbers to cast ballots in a parliamentary election October 15. Three opposition parties who campaigned on restoring democratic standards in Poland collectively won over 54% of the votes in the election, which ultimately puts them in a position to take power, according to the Associated Press. In total, the opposition parties will hold 248 seats in the 460-seat Sejm. The right-wing Law and Justice Party (known as PiS) that previously governed Poland for eight years won 35% of votes and will hold 194 seats in the new parliament.

Voter turnout for Poland’s election was at nearly 75%—the highest since 1919 and even higher than the nation’s first free elections after the fall of communism in 1989, according to ABC News

Parliamentary Election

  • October 15, 2023

Context from SIS Experts

Russia will hold presidential elections on March 17, 2024. Incumbent president Vladimir Putin has continuously served as either the president or prime minister since 1999.

Presidential Election

  • March 17, 2024
  • This is the first election since substantial amendments to the Constitution of Russia were made in 2020

Context from SIS Experts

Slovakia's former Prime Minister Robert Fico and his SMER-SSD party won the country's parliamentary election on September 30, 2023. Fico will now begin talks to form a coalition government, however, according to CNN, he will need the cooperation of two other parties in order to gain a majority. 

Parliamentary Election

  • September 30, 2023

Context from SIS Experts

Spain held general elections on July 23, 2023. The Cortes Generales of Spain is made up of the 350-member Congress of Deputies, and the 266-member Senate. No party was able to attain a majority, and a repeat election is likely if a government cannot be formed.

General Election

  • July 23, 2023

Switzerland held parliamentary elections on October 22, 2023, to elect all 246 seats in the Federal Assembly. The populist anti-immigration Swiss People’s Party gained the most seats and is now the largest faction in parliament. According to AP News, two environment-focused parties lost seats, signaling a further shift towards the right in Europe.

Parliamentary Election

  • October 22, 2023

Ukraine was scheduled to hold parliamentary elections on October 29, 2023, and presidential elections on March 31, 2024. Typically, parliamentary and presidential elections are held every five years, however, elections cannot be held while the country is under martial law. Ukraine has been under martial law since February 24, 2022, and has announced that all elections will be deferred to a later date. 

Context from SIS Experts

North America

Mexico will hold general elections on June 2, 2024, to elect a new president along with all 500 seats of the Chamber of Deputies, and 128 seats of the Senate. Incumbent president Andrés Manuel López Obrador is unable to be re-elected due to term limits under the Mexican Constitution.

General Election

  • June 2, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

The United States will hold general elections on November 5, 2024, to elect the president, 34 seats of the Senate, and all 435 seats of the House of Representatives. Incumbent president Joseph R. Biden and former president Donald J. Trump have announced their campaigns for re-election. 

Federal Election

  • November 5, 2024

Context from SIS Experts

Oceania

New Zealand held its general elections on October 14, 2023. Christopher Luxon from the conservative National Party will be the next prime minister after gaining 39% of votes.

The makeup of parliament is still unknown, but Luxon will likely seek to form an alliance with the libertarian ACT Party according to the Associated Press.

General Election

  • October 14, 2023

Palau will hold general elections on November 12, 2024, to elect the president and the National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the 13-seat Senate and the 16-seat House of Delegates. All seats in both houses are up for election to four-year terms.

General Election

  • July 23, 2024

South America

Argentina held its PASO (Open, Simultaneous, Obligatory Primaries) elections on August 13, 2023, to indicate preferences for presidential and National Congress candidates. The general elections were held on October 22, 2023, and a runoff election was held on November 19 to elect the president from the top two candidates. According to Reuters, far-right candidate Javier Milei won the runoff election with over 30% of the vote.

PASO Election

  • August 13, 2023
  • To qualify for presidential elections in October, candidates must receive at least 1.5% of votes
  • 5 candidates qualified for the presidential race: Javier Milei, Patricia Bullrich, Horatio Rodriguez Larreta, Sergio Massa, and Juan Grabois

General Election

  • October 22, 2023

Runoff Election

  • November 19, 2023

Context from SIS Experts

The Dominican Republic will hold a general election on May 19, 2024, to elect the president, vice president, 32 senators, and 19 deputies. Incumbent president Luis Abinader is eligible for re-election.

General Election

  • May 19, 2024

Ecuador held its presidential runoff election on October 15, 2023. Daniel Noboa won the runoff, and at 35, will become Ecuador’s youngest president in history. 

According to the Washington Post, Noboa will serve for 18 months— the remainder of former president Guillermo Lasso’s term. 

Presidential Runoff

  • October 15, 2023

El Salvador held general elections on February 4, 2024, to elect the president, vice president, and all 60 deputies of the Legislative Assembly. Incumbent president Nayib Bukele won re-election after El Salvador’s Supreme Court of Justice overturned the constitutional prohibition on immediate re-election in 2021.

General Election

  • February 4, 2024

Guatemala held a presidential runoff election on August 20, 2023, after no candidates received a 51% majority in the first round of voting. The two candidates in the runoff election were Sandra Torres and Bernardo Arévalo. The runoff election initially hit a roadblock after a court ruled that Arévalo’s Semilla political party was not allowed to participate in politics due to fraud accusations.

After the runoff moved ahead, Bernardo Arévalo went on to receive 59.1% of votes in the runoff, and he is set to become the next president of Guatemala.

Presidential Runoff Election

  • August 20, 2023

Panama will hold a general election on May 5, 2024, to elect the president and all 71 seats of the National Assembly. Incumbent president Laurentino Cortizo is unable to run for re-election due to constitutional term limits, however former president Ricardo Martinelli has been selected to represent his political party.

General Election

  • May 5, 2024

Uruguay will hold a general election on October 27, 2024, to elect the president and all seats in the 99-member Chamber of Deputies and 30-member Chamber of Senators. Incumbent president Louis Lacalle Pau cannot run for re-election, as the Uruguayan constitution does not allow immediate re-election. No front-runners have been identified yet, but the IMF recently met with possible candidates to help gauge the political landscape heading into an election year.

General Election

  • October 27, 2024